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God or Mammon

Martyn Lloyd-Jones

In our analysis of Matthew 6:19-24, we have seen that our Lord first of all lays down a proposition or a commandment, “Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth … but lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven.”  In other words, He tells us that we are so to live in this world, and so to use everything we have, whether our possessions, or gifts, or talents, or propensities, that we shall be laying up for ourselves treasures in heaven.

Then, having given us the injunction in that way, our Lord proceeds to supply us with reasons for doing this.  I would remind you again that here we have an illustration of the wonderful condescension and understanding of our blessed Lord.  He has no need to give us reasons.  It is for Him to command.  But He stoops to our weakness, mighty as He is, and He comes to our aid and supplies us with these reasons for carrying out His commandment.  He does so in a very remarkable manner.  He elaborates the reasons and presses them upon our consideration.  He does not merely give us one reason; He gives us a number.  He works it out for us in a series of logical propositions, and, of course, there can be no doubt at all but that He does this, not only because He is anxious to help us, but also, and still more perhaps, because of the desperate seriousness of the subject with which He is dealing.  Indeed, we shall see that this is one of the most serious matters which we can ever consider together.

Worldliness Is An Attitude

The world is so subtle and worldliness is such a pervasive thing, that we are all guilty of it and often without realizing it.  We tend to label worldliness as meaning certain particular things only, and always the things of which we are not guilty.  We therefore argue that this has nothing to say to us.  But worldliness is all-pervasive, and is not confined to certain things.  It does not just mean going to theatres or cinemas or doing a few things of that nature.  No, worldliness is an attitude towards life. It is a general outlook, and it is so subtle that it can come into the most holy things of all, as we saw earlier.

Another good way of testing ourselves is to ask ourselves quite simply and honestly why we hold our particular views.  What is our real interest? What is our motive? What, when we are quite honest and truthful with ourselves, is really at the back of these particular political views that we hold?  It is a most illuminating question if we are really honest.  I suggest that most people will find if they face that question quite honestly, that there are some treasures upon earth about which they are concerned, and in which they are interested.

The next test is this.  To what extent are our feelings engaged in this matter? How much bitterness is there, how much violence, how much anger and scorn and passion?  Apply that test, and again we shall find that the feeling is aroused almost invariably by the concern about laying up treasures upon earth.

The last test is this.  Are we viewing these things with a kind of detachment and objectivity or not?  What is our attitude towards all these things? Do we instinctively think of ourselves as pilgrims, and mere sojourners in this world, who of course have to be interested in these things while we are here?  Such an interest is certainly right, it is our duty.  But what is our ultimate attitude?  Are we controlled by it?  Or do we stand apart and regard it objectively, as something which is ephemeral, something which does not really belong to the essence of our life and being, something with which we are concerned only for a while, as we are passing through this life?  We should ask ourselves these questions in order that we may make quite certain whether this injunction of our Lord is speaking to us.  Those are some of the ways in which we can find out very simply whether we are or are not guilty of laying up for ourselves treasures upon earth, and not laying up for ourselves treasures in heaven.

Worldly Treasurse Do Not Last

When we come to consider our Lord’s arguments against laying up treasures on earth, we find that the first is one which we may very well describe as the argument of common sense, or of ordinary observation.  “Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth.”  Why?  For this reason: “where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal.”  But why should I lay up treasures in heaven?  For this reason: “where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal.”  Our Lord is saying that worldly treasures do not last; that they are transitory, passing, ephemeral.  “Change and decay in all around I see.” “Where moth and rust doth corrupt.” How true it is.  There is an element of decay in all these things, whether we like it or not.  Our Lord puts it in terms of the moth and rust that tend to lodge themselves in these things and destroy them.

Worldly Treasures Never Fully Satisfy

Spiritually, we can put it like this.  These things never fully satisfy. There is always something wrong with them; they always lack something.  There is no person on earth who is fully satisfied; and though in a sense some may appear to have everything that they desire, still they want something else.  Happiness cannot be purchased.

There is, however, another way of looking at the effect of moth and rust spiritually.  Not only is there an element of decay in these things; it is also true that we always tend to tire of them.  We may enjoy them for a while, but somehow or other they begin to pall or we lose interest in them.  That is why we are always talking about new things and seeking them.  Fashions change; and though we are very enthusiastic about certain things for a while, soon they no longer interest us as they did.  Is it not true that as age advances these things cease to satisfy us?  Old people generally do not like the same things as young people, or the young the same as the old.  As we get older these things seem to become different, there is an element of moth and rust.  We could even go further and put it more strongly and say that there is an impurity in them.  At their best, they are all infected.  Do what you will you cannot get rid of the impurity; the moth and rust are there and all your chemicals do not stop these processes.  Peter says a wonderful thing in this very connection: “Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises; that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust” (2 Peter 1:4).  There is corruption in all these earthly things; they are all impure.

Worldly Treasures Ultimately Perish

The last fact, therefore, about these things is that they inevitably perish. Your most beautiful flower is beginning to die immediately you pluck it.  You will soon have to throw it away.  That is true of everything in this life and world. It does not matter what it is, it is passing, it is all fading away.  Everything that has life is, as the result of sin, subject to this process: “moth and rust doth corrupt.”  Things develop holes and become useless, and at the end they are gone and become utterly corrupt.  The most perfect physique will eventually give way and break down and die; the most beautiful countenance will in a sense become ugly when the process of corruption has got going; the brightest gifts tend to fade.  Your great genius may be seen gibbering in delirium as the result of disease.  However wonderful and beautiful and glorious things may be, they all perish.  That is why, perhaps, the saddest of all failures in life is the failure of the philosopher who believes in worshipping goodness, beauty and truth; because there is no such thing as perfect goodness, there is no such thing as unalloyed beauty; there is an element of wrong and of sin and a lie in the highest truths.  “Moth and rust doth corrupt.”

Worldly Treasures Can Be Taken Away

“Yes,” says our Lord, “and thieves break through and steal.”  We must not stay with these things, they are so obvious, and yet we are so slow to recognize them.  There are many thieves in this life and they are always threatening us.  We think we are safe in our house; but we find thieves have broken in and ransacked it.  Other marauders are always threatening us—illness, a business loss, some industrial collapse, war and finally death itself It matters not what it is that we tend to hold on to in this world, one or other of these thieves is always threatening and will eventually take it from us.  It is not only money.  It may be some person for whom you are really living; your pleasure is in that one person.  Beware, my friends; there are robbers and thieves who are bound to come and eventually rob you of these possessions. Take our possessions at their highest as well as their lowest; they are a subject to these robbers, these attacks.  “The thieves break through and steal,” and we cannot prevent them.  So our Lord appeals to our common sense and reminds us that these worldly treasures never last.  “Change and decay in all around I see.”

Lay Up Treasure in Heaven

But look at the other, positive side. “Lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal.”  This is wonderful and full of glory.  Peter puts it in a phrase.  He says “to an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled, and that fadeth not away, reserved in heaven for you” (I Peter 1:4).  “The things which are not seen are eternal,” says St. Paul; it is the things which are seen that are temporal (2 Corinthians 4:18).  These heavenly things are imperishable and the thieves cannot break through and steal.  Why?  Because God Himself is reserving them for us.  There is no enemy that can ever rob us of them, or can ever enter in.  It is impossible because God Himself is the Guardian.  Spiritual pleasures are invulnerable; they are in a place which is impregnable. “I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord” (Romans 8:38, 39).

Furthermore, there is nothing impure there; naught that corrupts shall enter in.  There is no sin there, nor element of decay.  It is the realm of eternal life and eternal light.  He dwells “in the light which no man can approach unto,” as the apostle Paul puts it (I Timothy 6:16).  Heaven is the realm of life and light and purity and nothing belonging to death, nothing tainted or polluted can gain admission there.  It is perfect; and the treasures of the soul and of the spirit belong to that realm.  Lay them up there, says our Lord, because there is no moth nor rust there, and no thief can ever break through nor steal.

It is an appeal to common sense.  Do we not know that these things are true?  Are they not true of necessity?  Do we not see it all as we live in this world?  Take up your morning newspaper and look at the death column; look at all that is happening.  We know all these things.  Why do we not practice them and live accordingly?  Why do we lay up treasures on earth when we know what is going to happen to them?  And why do we not lay up treasures in heaven where we know that there is purity and joy, holiness and everlasting bliss?

The Spiritual Danger

That, however, is merely the first argument, the argument of common sense.  But our Lord does not stop at that.  His second argument is based upon the terrible spiritual danger involved in laying up treasures on earth and not in heaven.  That is a general heading, but our Lord divides it into certain sub-sections.

The first thing against which He warns us in this spiritual sense is the awful grip and power of these earthly things upon us.  You notice the terms He uses.  He says, “Where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.”  The heart! Then in verse 24, He talks about the mind.  “No man can serve two masters” and we should notice the word “serve.”  These are the expressive terms He uses in order to impress upon us the terrible control that these things tend to exercise over us.  Are we not all aware of them the moment we stop to think-the tyranny of persons, the tyranny of the world?  This is not something we can think about at a distance as it were.  We are all involved in this; we are all in the grip of this awful power of worldliness which really will master us unless we are aware of it.

However, our Lord does not stop at the general.  He is so anxious to show us this terrible danger that He works it out in detail.  He tells us that this terrible thing that grips us tends to affect the entire personality; not merely part of us, but the whole man.  And the first thing He mentions is the “heart.” Having laid down the injunction, He says, “For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also.”  These things grip and master our feelings, our affections and all our sensibility.  All that part of our nature is absolutely gripped by them and we love them.  Read John 3:19: “This is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil.”  We love these things.  We pretend that we only like them, but really we love them.  They move us deeply.

The next thing about them is a little more subtle.  They not only grip the heart, they grip the mind. Our Lord puts it in this way: “The light of the body is the eye: if therefore thine eye be single, thy whole body shall be full of light.  But if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be full of darkness.  If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is that darkness!” (verses 22, 23).  This picture of the eye is just His way of describing, by means of an illustration, the way in which we look at things.  And according to our Lord, there are but two ways of looking at everything in this world.  There is what He calls the “single” eye, the eye of the spiritual man who sees things really as they are, truly and without any double view.  His eye is clear and he sees things normally.  But there is the other eye which He calls the “evil” eye, which is a kind of double vision, or, if you like, it is the eye in which the lenses are not clear.  There are mists and opacities and we see things in a blurred way.  That is the evil eye.  It is colored by certain prejudices, colored by certain lusts and desires.  It is not a clear vision; it is all cloudy, colored by these various tints and taints.  That is what is meant by this statement which has so often confused people, because they do not take it in its context.  Our Lord in this picture is still dealing with the laying up of treasures.  Having shown that where the treasure is, the heart will be also, He says that it is not only the heart but the mind as well.  These are the things that control man.

But lastly, these things not only grip the heart and mind, they also affect the will. Says our Lord, “No man can serve two masters;” and the moment we mention the word “serve” we are in the realm of the will, the realm of action.  You notice how perfectly logical this is.  What we do is the result of what we think; so what is going to determine our lives and the exercise of our wills is what we think, and that in turn is determined by where our treasure is—our heart.  So we can sum it up like this.  These earthly treasures are so powerful that they grip the entire personality.   They grip a man’s heart, his mind and his will; they tend to affect his spirit, his soul and his whole being.  Whatever realm of life we may be looking at, or thinking about, we shall find these things are there.  Everyone is affected by them; they are a terrible danger.

But the last step is the most solemn and serious of all.  We must remember that the way in which we look at these things ultimately determines our relationship to God.  “No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other.  Ye cannot serve God and mammon.”  This is indeed a very solemn thing, and that is why it is dealt with so frequently in Scripture.  The truth of this proposition is obvious.  Both make a totalitarian demand upon us.  Worldly things really do make a totalitarian demand as we have seen.  How they tend to grip the entire personality and affect us everywhere!  They demand our entire devotion; they want us to live for them absolutely.  Yes, but so does God.  Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength.”  Not in a material sense necessarily, but in some sense or other He says to us all, “Go, sell all that thou hast, and come, follow me.”  “He that loveth father or mother more than me is not worthy of me: and he that loveth son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me.”  It is a totalitarian demand.  Notice it again in verse 24: “Either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other.”  It is “either—or” compromise is completely impossible at this point. “Ye cannot serve God and mammon.”

There is a perfect illustration of that in the Old Testament.  Study carefully 2 Kings 17:24-41. H ere is what we are told.  The Assyrians conquered some area; then they took their own people and settled them in that area.  These Assyrians of course did not worship God.  Then some lions came and destroyed their property.  “This”, they said, “has happened to us because we do not worship the God of this particular land.  We will get priestly instruction on this.”  So they found a priest who instructed them generally in the religion of Israel.  And then they thought that all would be well.  But this is what Scripture said about them: they “feared the Lord, and served their graven images.”  What a terrible thing that is.  It alarms me.  It is not what we say that matters.  In the last day, many shall say, “Lord, Lord, have we not done this, that and the other?”  But He will say unto them, “I never knew you.” “Not every one that saith unto me Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven; but he that doeth the will of my Father.”  Whom do you serve?  That is the question, and it is either God or mammon.  There is nothing in the last analysis that is so insulting to God as to take His name upon us and yet to show clearly that we are serving mammon in some shape or form.  That is the most terrible thing of all.  It is the greatest insult to God; and how easily and unconsciously we can all become guilty of this.

I remember once hearing a preacher tell a story which he assured us was simple, literal truth.  It illustrates perfectly the point which we are considering.  It is the story of a farmer who one day went happily and with great joy in his heart to report to his wife and family that their best cow had given birth to twin calves, one red and one white.  And he said, “You know I have suddenly had a feeling and impulse that we must dedicate one of these calves to the Lord.  We will bring them up together, and when the time comes we will sell one and keep the proceeds, and we will sell the other and give the proceeds to the Lord’s work.”  His wife asked him which he was going to dedicate to the Lord.  “There is no need to bother about that now,” he replied, “we will treat them both in the same way, and when the time comes we will do as I say.”  And off he went.  In a few months, the man entered his kitchen looking very miserable and unhappy.  When his wife asked him what was troubling him, he answered, “I have bad news to give you.  The Lord’s calf is dead.”  “But”, she said, “you had not decided which was to be the Lord’s calf.”  “Oh yes,” he said; “I had always decided it was to be the white one, and it is the white one that has died.  The Lord’s calf is dead.  We may laugh at that story, but God forbid that we should be laughing at ourselves.  It is always the Lord’s calf that dies.  When money becomes difficult, the first thing we economize on is our contribution to God’s work.  It is always the first thing to go.  Perhaps we must not say “always,” for that would be unfair; but with so many it is the first thing, and the things we really like are the last to go.  “We cannot serve God and mammon.”  These things tend to come between us and God, and our attitude to them ultimately determines our relationship to God.  The mere fact that we believe in God, and call Him, Lord, Lord, and likewise with Christ, is not proof in and of itself that we are serving Him, that we recognize His totalitarian demand, and have yielded ourselves gladly and readily to Him.  “Let every man examine himself.”

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Now when John had heard in the prison the works of Christ, he sent two of his disciples, And said unto him, “Art thou he that should come, or do we look for another?” Matthew 11:2

These words bring us directly face to face with the great central theme of the New Testament. John the Baptist, bound in prison, sent his two disciples to put this famous question to Jesus of Nazareth: “Art thou He that should come, or do we look for another?” In other words, the question was, “Are you the Messiah whom we have been expecting, or are we mistaken, those of us who believe that you are; and must we start looking for someone else or wait for the Messiah to come?” So this is the crucial question which is put, in some shape or form, everywhere in the New Testament: “Art thou He that should come?;” “what think ye so Christ, whose son is He?.” The four Gospels are all portraits of this person; they present Him to us and hold Him before us. Look too at the Acts of the Apostles and you will find that the first preachers, under the auspices of the Christian Church, went round and preached and talked about Jesus, the same person. Then go to the Epistles and you will find that they are full of this name; every book of the New Testament is calling attention to Him.

So then, we are obviously, here, dealing with this great theme. Christianity, we are reminded, is essentially something that concerns the person of the Lord Jesus Christ. We start with that fact and emphasize it, because Christianity is not primarily a teaching, nor a philosophy, nor even a way of life. In the first instance it is, before all, a relationship to a person. The New Testament in a sense will not even discuss with us the kind of life we are going to live until we have come to a satisfactory answer about Him. All along, it shuts us down to this one matter and holds us up against this one thing: it refuses to discuss our questions and our problems with us except in terms of this person. “I want to live a good life’” says someone. “all right,” replies the New Testament, “but before we can discuss with you how you can live such a life, what have you made of Him? Where does He come into your scheme of things? What is His place and position in your whole outlook and world?”

Now that, let me emphasize again, is something that is really vital and central. The whole message of the New Testament is to say certain things about Him, everything it has to say is in terms of Him. It starts with Him; it is the gospel of Jesus Christ. It makes the amazing claim for Him that He was none other than the Son of God come down into this world. It tells us that He and He alone is the Savior of the world, that He came into the world in order to save it and that there is no heaven apart from Him.

Then, having made this great claim, the New Testament goes on to say that the most important question, therefore, which we must face is that of Jesus Christ; for, it tells us, our life in this world here and now, the whole meaning of death, and, indeed, our life throughout eternity, depends entirely and solely upon our answer to this question: “Art thou He that should come or do we look for another.” The New Testament does not hesitate to say that. Listen to the Apostle Peter saying it unequivocally in one of his first recorded sermons: “There is none other name under heaven given among men whereby we must be saved” (Acts 4:12) — this name of the Lord Jesus Christ.

Now that is a dogmatic assertion, I agree, but there is a no more dogmatic book in the world than the New Testament. It never comes and says, “You have read many other books and been interested in their theories, now read me and see what you make of me. Perhaps you will find me more interesting than the others.” No, rather, it makes a definite pronouncement. Here, it tells us, is the only way for men and women to know God and be reconciled to him…. Here is the only way whereby they can be delivered forever from the fear of death and the grave. And here, says the New Testament, is the one and only way in which men and women can avoid spending eternity in a state of misery and wretchedness and torment. That is its statement, nothing less. “He that believeth on the Son hath life; and he that believeth not the Son shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth upon him” (John 3:36). It is one or the other; everything is dependent upon this one person.

So I think I have demonstrated that whatever you may think of the New Testament message, it is the person who comes first; not religion or a good life. Indeed, the New Testament comes to us and says, “I am not interested in your views about anything until we are clear about your views about him.” He is central, he is first, and if we are wrong about him, it does not make any difference, even if we are right everywhere else.

Therefore, in light of this message, there is nothing of such vital importance to us as just this question: What is Jesus Christ to us? John, there in prison, sent his two messengers because he had realized that it was the most important question on earth and in life: is this the Messiah, or is it not?

Then John does the right thing; he says in effect, “No more debate and discussion, just go to Him.” And he sends two of his disciples to say to Him, “Art thou He that should come, or look we for another?”

That is why, by the grace of God, the Gospels have been written. We cannot go in the flesh but we can go to the Gospels and have a look at Him. And this is what we see. We are impressed by the apparent contradiction. We look and say, “Isn’t He remarkably like us?” and the next minute we say, “How absolutely different!” It is this curious contradiction. Take His great claim for Himself — “Before Abraham was, I am” (John 8:58). “He that hath seen me hath seen the Father” (John 14:9). “I am the way, the truth and the life; no man cometh unto the Father but by me” (John 14:6). “Ye have heard it said by them of old time … but I say unto you” (Mt. 5:27-28). What an astonishing claim he makes for Himself and His own person. Then listen, too, to the extraordinary claims He makes upon other people. There is a man sitting at the receipt of custom, following his job as usual, then this person comes along and says, “Follow me! Leave Everything!” He demands a totalitarian allegiance: what a claim for a man to make for himself and other people!

And then look at Him again and behold His understanding. Listen to Him as He expounds the Scriptures in a way no one ever did before. He knows more than the doctors of the law, there is an authority in His speech which man has never known before. Then look at His works, His miracles of healing; look at Him walking upon the sea, look at this astounding man and His works of power. Look at His sinlessness — no one can point a finger at Him, He is absolutely sinless and perfect.

So it is not a question of understanding, it is a question of the facts. Here they are confronting us, this amazing person, appearing as God only, as man only and yet clearly as both. Can you explain Him in any other terms? Go to Him, Himself, and leave it all to Him and He will give you an answer which, if you are honest, will satisfy your soul and save it for time and eternity. “Art thou He that should come or look we for another?” He is the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the Saviour of the world.

Excerpted from The Heart of the Gospel, “The Vital Question,” by D. Martin Lloyd-Jones.

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But you will see at once that the purpose of all this [Christian morality laws] is simply to set a limit to sin and to the results of sin and wrongdoing. All I have been describing can do nothing more than control sin and keep it within bounds. I think it is obvious that it is an entirely negative work. All of these enactments and all councils and committees concerned with morality, and the Lord’s Day Observance Society, and all these movements, can never make anybody a Christian. It is a very great sin to confuse law and grace.

It is because of this, then, that I go on to say that really these laws and regulations and various other things have nothing to do with Christians as such, and that is why I said earlier on that these things are not primarily the business of the church. That is also why I, as a minister of Christ and as a minister of the church, never speak on any temperance platforms. I have never spoken for any one of these organizations designed to observe the Sabbath, nor have I ever spoken on a morality platform. My reason is that it is the business of the church to preach the gospel and to show what I would call, with Paul, “a more excellent way.” That is why the church must always be very careful to ensure that nothing she does or says should ever detract from or compromise her message and her gospel.

The church, in other words, must never hide behind the law of the land and she must never try to enforce her message by using the law of the land, for that is to compromise her gospel. It is to make the unbeliever out in the world say, “Ah these people are trying to force this upon us, they are using law in order to get it done.” No, at all costs the church must keep her message pure and clean, and she must take her stand on the purity of the gospel nd upon that alone.

D. M. Lloyd-Jones, Sanctified through the Truth (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 1989), pp. 14-15.

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Is the Christian church adaptable? As I see it, the tragedy is that we still seem to be clinging to the forms and the methods of the Victorians. Nothing is more extraordinary than to see men who have forsaken the Gospel long ago still clinging to the methods and the forms and ceremonial of the Victorians. It is not surprising that people no longer attend churches. The people who have forgotten the gospel cling to the old forms and methods; and the world scoffs. The whole thing is ridiculed. And, indeed, we have no right to complain of the ridicule.

I do not want to be unfair, so let me balance my statement. We are not going to fight this modern battle successfully by repeating the sermons of the Puritans verbatim, or adopted their classifications and sub-divisions, and their manner of preaching. That would be futile. We must learn to hold onto the old principles but we must apply them, and use them, in a manner that is up-to-date.

Forgive a personal reference. I am going to do what the Apostle did in the 11th chapter of his Second Epistle to the Corinthians. I am going to be a fool, and to say something about myself. I remember how, in the very first year when I began to preach, I was preaching in a service with an old preacher who was over eighty years of age. Having listened to my feeble effort, and having heard me for the first time, the old man made this comment which encouraged me greatly. He said, “Though you are a young man, you are preaching the old truths I have been trying to preach all my life.” He went on, “You are preaching the old truths, but you have put a very modern suit on them.”

That is what I am trying to say. We need the old truths in a modern suit. You must not clothe them in the old staid terminology or manner or method that was appropriate in the past. The moment we become slaves to any system–I do not care how good it was in its age and generation–we all are already defeated, because we have missed this whole principle of adaptability. So we do not need gramophone records, not even of the Puritans! We need the truth that was preached by the Puritans, but preached in a manner that will show its relevance, its adaptability to the most urgent modern situation. God forbid that our methods should deny the very message we are trying to preach, either by imitating the latest methods of worldly entertainment or by methods that are so archaic as to make our message irrelevant.

D. M. Lloyd-Jones, The Christian Soldier (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1977), pp. 290-91.

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